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    处理压缩气体钢瓶泄露的紧急行动




    Emergency Action for Handling Leaking Compressed Gas Cylinders 
    处理压缩气体钢瓶泄露的紧急行动
    General Precautions 
    一般防范
    Gengas takes every reasonable precaution to see that its products come to you safely. This concern for safety doesn’t end with delivery, but should be continued by you and all other customers by following seven general precautions. 
    通用气体采取了每一种合理的安全防范,以确保它的产品安全地到达你的手中。这种对安全的关注并不是随销售的结束而结束,而是要由你和所有其它用户通过遵守以下七个通用防范措施来继续。
    1. Know and Understand Gas Properties 
    知道和理解气体的性质
    Know and understand the properties, proper uses, and safety precautions of your gases before using them. Consult the Air Products Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) and/or Safetygrams for safety information about these gases. 
    在使用气体之前,知道和理解气体的性质、正确使用和安全防范。关于这些气体的安全资料,请参考Air Products的材料安全数据表(MSDS)和/或安全程序。关于你将要使用的气体和设备的安全资料,请参考Air Products的材料安全数据表(MSDS)和安全程序。
    2. Know and Understand the Gas Package  
    知道和理解气体的包装
    Know and understand the package for each of the gases you use. The package consists of two distinctive parts—the cylinder and the cylinder valve. Again, consult 
    the appropriate MSDS materials and Safetygrams for your specific products. The following Safetygrams provide basic package information: 
    知道和理解你使用的每一种气体的包装。包装由两个明显不同部分—钢瓶和钢瓶阀门组成。关于你要使用的特殊气体,还是请参考通用气体的材料安全数据表和安全程序。下列的安全程序提供了基本的包装资料。
    • Handling, Storage and Use of Compressed Gas Cylinders 
    液化压缩气体钢瓶的操作、储存和使用
    • Don’t Turn a Cylinder In to a Rocket 
    不要把钢瓶变成火箭
    • Cylinder Pressure-Relief Devices 
    钢瓶减压装置
    • Cylinder Valves 
    钢瓶阀门
    The Compressed Gas Association (CGA) also offers helpful publications such as the “Handbook of Compressed Gases” and Pamphlet P-1, “Safe Handling of Compressed Gases In Containers,” which provide information on the safe handling of gases and their packages. 
    压缩气体协会(CGA)还提供有帮助的出版物,如“压缩气体手册”和小册子P-1,“容器内压缩气体的安全操作”,该书提供了关于气体及其包装的安全操作的资料。
    3. Check Your Equipment 
    检查你的设备

    Before lines and equipment are used, leak-check and evaluate their ability to contain full cylinder pressure. The leak check should be performed with an inert gas, and care should be taken not to over pressurize any components of the system. If the system is not rated for full cylinder pressure, a pressure-reducing regulator must be used and the system should be protected with a pressure-relief device. 

    Leak-check the system at its working pressure. Be certain that materials of construction are compatible with the gases being used. 

    在管道和设备使用前,进行检漏并评估它们承受满瓶压力的能力。检漏应用惰性气体进行,注意不要使系统的任何组件过压。如果系统额定压力低于满瓶的压力,必须使用减压调整器,同时应该用减压装置来保护系统。在工作压力下对系统检漏。确信材料同正在使用的气体兼容。
    4. Develop Emergency Plans 
    制定紧急情况计划
    Federal law requires that all facilities using hazardous materials develop emergency plans. Be aware of the potential hazards of the gases being stored and used, and plan for emergencies. Practice implementing emergency plans so that all contingencies are covered. Assign responsibilities and lines of authority. Coordinate with local hospitals and fire departments and inform them of the gases in use so they can be prepared with the needed expertise, equipment, and medical support if an emergency occurs. 
    联邦法律要求所有使用危险材料的设施都要制定紧急情况计划。了解所储存和使用的气体的潜在危险,为紧急情况作好计划。练习实施紧急计划,以确定包括了所有的紧急情况。分配责任和权限。同当地医院和消防部门合作,把正在使用的气体通知它们,这样如果紧急情况发生的话,它们就已经准备好了所需的专门技术、设备和医疗支持。
    5. Provide Personal Protection 
    提供个人保护装备
    It is necessary to define and provide personal protective equipment (PPE) for routine operations, as well as for emergencies. It is important to establish a policy that requires personnel to wear the proper PPE for each job. Gloves, face protection, and sensible work uniforms for routine tasks, as well as self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA)and special protective clothing required for emergencies, should be made available. In addition, gas cabinets, eye washes, safety showers, and fire extinguishers should be considered when using hazardous materials. Everyone involved must be trained in the proper use of all necessary PPE. Train personnel to recognize when that equipment is needed. 
    无论是常规操作还是紧急情况,都有必要详细说明和提供个人防护装备(PPE)。要求员工每次工作都要穿戴适当的PPE,建立这样的原则是很重要的。常规任务时应备有手套、面罩和敏感的工作服,紧急情况下应备有自给式呼吸器(SCBA)和特殊防护服。另外,使用危险材料时,应当考虑到气体室、洗眼、安全淋浴和灭火器。每个相关人员都必须经过所有必需PPE的正确使用的训练。训练员工,使之能判断什么时候需要什么装备。6. Follow the Regulations 
    遵守规定
    Comply with all federal, state, and local regulations pertaining to the storage and use of compressed gases. CGA Pamphlet P-1 and the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) codes provide excellent guidance. 
    遵守联邦、州和当地的所有关于压缩气体储存和使用的规定。CGA的小册子P-1和国家消防协会的规定提供了极好的指导。
    7. When in Doubt 
    有疑问时
    When in doubt about the handling or use of any Air Products’ gases or equipment, or the hazards of a particular gas, contact your local sales office or call our Technical Information Center at +1 (800) 752-1597. 
    对任何Air Products的气体或设备或者特定气体的危险有疑问时,同当地的销售处联系,或者给我们的技术资料中心打电话:+1 (800) 752-1597。
    Leaks 
    泄漏
    Cylinder leaks usually occur at welded seams (on low-pressure cylinders) or at the cylinder valve. Proper quality control of materials and inspections, as required by the Department of Transportation (DOT), lessen the probability of cylinder leaks.  
    钢瓶泄漏通常发生在焊缝处(低压钢瓶),或者在钢瓶阀门处。正如交通部所要求的那样,材料的正确质量控制和检查降低了钢瓶泄漏的概率。
    Compressed gas suppliers are required to inspect cylinders for visual damage each time the cylinders are filled. In addition, gas producers must make certain the cylinder closure is completely leak-tight, and that cylinders are internally inspected and hydrostatically tested at the prescribed time intervals. The purpose of these inspections is to verify that the cylinder is in sound condition and that it will be safe during transportation. In spite of such precautions, leaks can develop from handling in transit, during storage, and during use. The greatest leak potential is with the cylinder valve. There are four distinct areas where leaks at the cylinder valve can occur: 
    每次钢瓶灌装时,要求压缩气体供应商检查钢瓶是否有可见的损伤。另外,气体生产商必须确定钢瓶的密封是彻底防漏的,在指定时间间隔内要进行钢瓶内部检查和流体静力学测试。这些检查的目的是验证钢瓶处在完好状态且在运输过程中是安全的。尽管有这些防范措施,在运输、储存和使用中,泄漏还是可能发生。最大的泄漏可能点是钢瓶阀门。钢瓶阀门上有四个特殊区域可能
    发生泄漏:
    1. Valve Threads 
    阀门螺纹
    Leaks are possible at the valve threads where the valve screws into the cylinder; these are commonly referred to as “neck leakers.” These types of leaks cannot and should not be repaired in the field. To do so is a violation of a very important safety practice—NEVER repair equipment under pressure. Leaks of this nature should only be handled with the assistance of the supplier. 
    在阀门旋进钢瓶的螺纹处可能发生泄漏,这些一般称为“颈部漏孔”。不能也不应该在现场修理这种泄漏。这样做违背了一条非常重要的安全惯例——禁止带压修理设备。这种泄漏只能在供应商的帮助下来处理。
    2. Pressure-Relief Device 
    减压装置
    Leaks can occur at two points on the pressure-relief device—around its threads or through its relief channel. Again, leaks at the pressure-relief device cannot and must not be repaired in the field. To attempt field repair is a violation of two very important safety practices. NEVER attempt to repair equipment under pressure and NEVER tamper with pressure-relief devices. Tampering with the pressure-relief device compromises the safety of the cylinder. Leaks through the pressure-relief channel can become severe, and all personnel must be evacuated from the immediate area. Contact your supplier for immediate assistance. 
    在减压装置上有两个位置可能发生泄漏——螺纹附近或通过减压通道。再一次说明,不能在现场修理减压装置处的泄漏。试图现场修理违背了两条非常重要的安全惯例:禁止带压修理设备和禁止堵塞减压装置。堵塞减压装置会危及钢瓶的安全。来自减压通道的泄漏可能会变得很严重,所有人员必须马上撤离。立刻联系你的供应商,取得它的帮助。
    3. Valve Stem 



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